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r, Ch’ien, at home in the literatures of two or three major European languages, taught at the National Southwest Associated University in Kunming; i the National Teachers College at Lan-t’ien in Pao-ching, Hunan province; Aurora Women’s College of Arts and Sciences in Shanghai; and Chi-nan University in Shanghai. From 1946 to 1948 he was also the editor of the English language periodical Philobiblion, published by the National Central University Library in Nanking. Among the small corpus of pre-Communist works by Ch’ien, the following are noteworthy. At Tsing-hua he wrote a number of short stories and vignette-type essays for Crescent Moon (Hsin yuieh) and Literary Review (Wen-hsiieh tsa-chih) magazines. In 1941 the essays were published in Shanghai as a volume entitled Marginalia of Life (Hsieh tsai jen-sheng pien shang). Some of the short stories were anthologized in his 1946 publication entitled Men, Beasts, and Ghosts (Jen, Shou, Kuei). In 1948 he published On the Art of Poetry (T’an yi in), composed in an elegant wen-y en, or classical, style. After the Communist victory in 1949, he returned to Peking to teach at Tsing-hua University. While still in Shanghai, Ch’ien had become dissatisfied with Fortress Besieged, and thought he could do better. He began to write another novel to be called “Heart of the Artichoke” (Pai-ho hsin), after Baudelaire’s phrase “Le coeur d’artichaut.” He had written some 3,000 to 4,000 words, but unfortunately the manuscript was lost in the mail when the Ch’iens moved from Shanghai to Peking. He has not worked on the novel since then. In Peking Ch’ien first worked as a researcher in the Foreign Literature Institute of the Academy of Sciences; then he transferred to the Chinese Literature Institute of the same academy. Since the foundation of the Institute of Literature in the Academy of Social Sciences in 1952, he has been one of its two moncler coats senior fellows, the other being Yu Ping-Po, well-known for his studies on the Dream of the Red Chamber (Hung-lou meng). Ch’ien’s wife Yang Chiang is a researcher in the institute. Ch’ien seems to have abandoned the writing of his earlier vitriolic works and restricted himself to literary scholarship. His most significant post-1949 work has been Annotated Selection of Sung Poetry (Sung-shib hsiian-chu), which was published in 1958. Later he headed a team of scholars responsible for the writing of the T’ang and Sung sections of a history of Chinese literature. In 1974 it was widely rumored that he had died. The rumor prompted C. T. Hsia to write a memorial essay, “In Memory of Mr. Ch’ien Chung-shu” (Chui-nien Ch’ien Chung-shu hsien-sheng) ~6 Ch’ien, how ever, is alive and well and has been “resurrected” after the fall of the Gang of Four. His recent activities include visits to Rome in the fall of 1978 and to the United States in the spring of 1979 as a member of Chinese academic delegations. While he was in Italy, he talked with three scholars who were translating or had translated Fortress Besieged into French, Czech, and Russian. Yang Chiang was a member of a Chinese delegation in Paris while her husband was in America. Her most recent publication was a Chinese translation of Don Quixote moncler jackets uk in 1978, and it is now in its second printing. In 1979 Ch’ien published a book containing four studies, one on Chinese painting and Chinese poetry dating back to the 1930s and the other three essays written since 1949 (including one on Lin Shu, which was partially translated by George Kao and published in Renditions). Also in 1979 a new edition of Annotated Selection of Sung Poetry with thirty additional notes was published. Ch’ien’s most important publication in 1979, however, is a mammoth work of over one million words entitled Kuan-chui pien, in four volumes. Each section focuses on one major classical Chinese work: I ching, Shib ching, Chuang-tzu, Lieh-tzu, Shib-chi, Tso-chuan, and the complete moncler down jacket pre T’ang prose. Altogether ten studies, both philological and comparative (Western), comprising the four divisions of ching, shib, tzu, and chi, are written in a style more elegant and archaic than that of On the Art of Poetry. Ch’ien wanted to show the world that there is at least one person in China who can write in this style and has not broken with the old tradition; he also hoped to inspire younger Chinese everywhere to study the Chinese past. Kuan-chui pien, Ch’ien believes, will be his masterwork.7 Ch’ien’s B. Litt. thesis, On the Art of Poetry, and Annotated Selection of Sung Poetry are all works of solid scholarship. The first represents meticulous research; the second contains many references to Western poetics from Plato to the Abb~ Bremond and an honest evaluation of Chinese poets and their shortcomings; and the preface to the third is a masterpiece of literary analysis.8 Apart from these works, Ch’ien is primarily a satirist in his essays and short stories. For example, the first essay in Marginalia of Life is “Satan Pays an Evening Visit to Mr. Ch’ien Chung-shu” (Mo-kuei yeh fang Ch’ien Chung-shu hsien-sheng), a satire on man through the super natural, the targets being hypocrisy and ignorance. In “On Laughter and Humor” (Shuo hsiao), he attacks those lacking humor; he mocks and scorns false champions of moraFortress Besiegedlity in “Those Who Moralize” (T’an chiao-hsun); he chides the hypocrites in “Men of Letters” (Lun wen-jen) and literary charlatans in “Illiteracy” (Shih wen-mang). In a similar vein, his vitriolic fire is also apparent in his short stories, most notably in “Inspiration” (Ling kan), a satiric and harsh attack on the writing profession itself and a lampoon on a number of well-known literary figures. Lampooning as much as he does in Men, Beasts, and Ghosts, he is also a fine writer of psychological insight. His story “Cat” (Mao) is a good example of marital strife which mars the happiness of a certain Li family. Even finer than “Cat” is “Souvenir” (Chi nien), often considered the best story in Men, Beasts, and Ghosts. A study of the seduction of a lonely married woman by an air force pilot during the Sino-Japanese War, it emphasizes the heroine’s feelings of guilt, fascination, revulsion, and relief toward her extramarital affair. Also well done is the story’s ironic ending. After the pilot dies in action, the woman’s husband, not knowing of his wife’s infidelity and impregnation by the pilot, suggests that they commemorate the dead pilot by naming the baby after him, if it is a boy. Fortress Besieged, however, remains the best of Ch’ien’s pre-1949 works. Structured in nine chapters, it is a comedy of manners with much picaresque humor, as well as a scholar’s novel, a satire, a commentary on courtship and marriage, and a study of one contemporary man. The nine chapters can be divided into four sections, or what Roland Barthes calls “functional sequences”: 9 Section I (chapters 1—4); Section II (chapter 5); Section III (chapters 6—8); and Section IV (chapter 9) moncler online shop . Section I begins with the story of Fang Hung-chien, who is returning to China from Europe in 1937; cheap moncler jackets continues with his brief visit to his hometown, Wushi, and his experience in Shanghai; and concludes with his accepting a teaching appointment at the newly established San Lii University in the interior. Section II is relatively short and centers on the trials and tribulations Fang Hung-chien and others encounter in their journey to the university; Section III highlights in vivid color the true story of Chinese pseudo-intellectuals within the confines of an academic environment; and Section IV details the trivial misunderstandings between Fang Hung-chien and his bride and ends with the dissolution of their marriage. In each of the four sections, Ch’ien Chung-shu emphasizes the hero’s experiences from hope through frustration to defeat; a functional unit in itself, each section has its own curve of hope, frustration, and defeat. Furthermore, Section I serves as a microcosm for the other sections. The theme of “besiegement” is seen in Ch’ien Chung-shu’s description of the various types of pressures closing in on Fang Hung-chien in Section I; the pressures are amplified in Sections II and III and concretized in Section IV. Traits of character that we are to k moncler discount now in excruciating detail for tens of pages are unmistakably sketched in a few. Fang’s ineffectualness as a person in Section I clearly hints at the failures that are to haunt him in later sections. An inkling of the types of characters we are to meet in other sections also surfaces in Section 1. For example, the comprador Jimmy Chang in Section I is to return as Mrs. Lu in Section IV; the effeminate pseudo-intellectuals in Miss Su’s circle are to be reborn as gossipmongers and power grabbers in Section III, and Japanese collaborators in Section IV. Even the boat trip in Section I is to be repeated in Section II and Section III to indicate the ebbing of the protagonist’s fortunes. Even though Section I serves as a microcosm for the whole book and reveals the structural cleverness of the novel, this is not to say that the tone and mood of each section is the same; in fact, a definite pattern toward the worsening of Fang Hung-chien’s fortunes can be discerned. Section I has the frivolousness of spring; Section II, the comic delights of summer; Section III, the somberness and seriousness of fall; and Section IV, the worst moments of wintry chill. By making each section a separate unit, by fashioning Section I into a sampling of the other three sections, and by showing the continuous change of tone and mood from Section I through Section IV, the author demonstrates that he is a very careful artist who fabricates and engineers every small part to fit his overall plan, down to the point of sup plying us with an omniscient narrator who steers us all th moncler clothing e way. The result of this careful engineering is a mighty singleness and a massive consistency. Besides the careful engineering that goes into the structure of the novel, Fortress Besieged is a comedy of manners in i moncler discount ts presentation of representative segments of the author’s time. We meet the lowly porters, shopkeepers, innkeepers, bus drivers, country folk, soldiers, prostitutes, and French policemen serving their mother country in her Concessions in China; the middle- class returned students, country squires, journalists; and the rising middle class bankers, compradors, factory managers, Japanese collaborators, and others. Each group has it moncler down jacket s own particular characteristics, somewhat exaggerated and simplified, by which they are ea moncler bambino sily comprehensible. In minute and accurate detail, Ch’ien Chung-sh moncler shop u shows their idiosyncrasies. What results are brilliant caricatures of avaricious porters, defensive shopkeepers, superstitious countryfolk, hollow intellectuals, vulgar compradors and businessmen? In Section II there is also a great deal of picaresque humor, resulting from the interplay of characters and their very different standards and assumptions. One brief example must suffice. After traveling for some time on the road, Fang Hung-chien and his companions check into a nondescript inn. In examining the menu, they learn that there is “milk coffee” available and they ask the waiter for more information. The waiter assured them at once that it was good stuff from Shanghai with the original seal intact. moncler ski jackets Hung-chien asked what the brand was. This the waiter didn’t know, but in any case it was sweet, fragrant, and top quality, for one paper bag made one cup of coffee. “That’s coffee candy to cajole children with,” said Hsin

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